donatieknop english

Centrale databases waarmee overheden van hun burgers kunnen determineren wat ze zijn, doen en willen, ontstaan niet van de ene dag op de andere. Er zijn vele tussenstappen die gemaakt moeten worden voordat het ideaal van een centraal computergestuurde staat mogelijk is. Het artikel hieronder wordt hier gepresenteerd als voorbeeld van hoe zo'n tussenstap wordt gedaan.

SOURCE: The New York Times, Solomon Moore, April 18, 2009

Law enforcement officials are vastly expanding their collection of DNA to include millions more people who have been arrested or detained but not yet convicted. The move, intended to help solve more crimes, is raising concerns about the privacy of petty offenders and people who are presumed innocent.


Until now, the federal government genetically tracked only convicts. But starting this month, the Federal Bureau of Investigation will join 15 states that collect DNA samples from those awaiting trial and will collect DNA from detained immigrants — the vanguard of a growing class of genetic registrants.

The F.B.I., with a DNA database of 6.7 million profiles, expects to accelerate its growth rate from 80,000 new entries a year to 1.2 million by 2012 — a 17-fold increase. F.B.I. officials say they expect DNA processing backlogs — which now stand at more than 500,000 cases — to increase.

Law enforcement officials say that expanding the DNA databanks to include legally innocent people will help solve more violent crimes. They point out that DNA has helped convict thousands of criminals and has exonerated more than 200 wrongfully convicted people.

But criminal justice experts cite Fourth Amendment privacy concerns and worry that the nation is becoming a genetic surveillance society.

“DNA databases were built initially to deal with violent sexual crimes and homicides — a very limited number of crimes,” said Harry Levine, a professor of sociology at City University of New York who studies policing trends. “Over time more and more crimes of decreasing severity have been added to the database. Cops and prosecutors like it because it gives everybody more information and creates a new suspect pool.”

Courts have generally upheld laws authorizing compulsory collection of DNA from convicts and ex-convicts under supervised release, on the grounds that criminal acts diminish privacy rights.

DNA extraction upon arrest potentially erodes that argument, a recent Congressional study found. “Courts have not fully considered legal implications of recent extensions of DNA-collection to people whom the government has arrested but not tried or convicted,” the report said.

Minors are required to provide DNA samples in 35 states upon conviction, and in some states upon arrest. Three juvenile suspects in November filed the only current constitutional challenge against taking DNA at the time of arrest. The judge temporarily stopped DNA collection from the three youths, and the case is continuing.

Sixteen states now take DNA from some who have been found guilty of misdemeanors. As more police agencies take DNA for a greater variety of lesser and suspected crimes, civil rights advocates say the government’s power is becoming too broadly applied. “What we object to — and what the Constitution prohibits — is the indiscriminate taking of DNA for things like writing an insufficient funds check, shoplifting, drug convictions,” said Michael Risher, a lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union.

This year, California began taking DNA upon arrest and expects to nearly double the growth rate of its database, to 390,000 profiles a year from 200,000.

One of those was Brian Roberts, 29, who was awaiting trial for methamphetamine possession. Inside the Twin Towers Correctional Facility in Los Angeles last month, Mr. Roberts let a sheriff’s deputy swab the inside of his cheek.

Mr. Roberts’s DNA will be translated into a numerical sequence at the F.B.I.’s DNA database, the largest in the world.

The system will search for matches between Mr. Roberts’s DNA and other profiles every Monday, from now into the indeterminate future — until one day, perhaps decades hence, Mr. Roberts might leave a drop of blood or semen at some crime scene.

Law enforcement officials say that DNA extraction upon arrest is no different than fingerprinting at routine bookings and that states purge profiles after people are cleared of suspicion. In practice, defense lawyers say this is a laborious process that often involves a court order. (The F.B.I. says it has never received a request to purge a profile from its database.)

When DNA is taken in error, expunging a profile can be just as difficult. In Pennsylvania, Ellyn Sapper, a Philadelphia public defender, has spent weeks trying to expunge the profile taken erroneously of a 14-year-old boy guilty of assault and bicycle theft. “I’m going to have to get a judge’s order to make sure that all references to his DNA are gone,” she said.

The police say that the potential hazards of genetic surveillance are worth it because it solves crimes and because DNA is more accurate than other physical evidence. “I’ve watched women go from mug-book to mug-book looking for the man who raped her,” said Mitch Morrissey, the Denver district attorney and an advocate for more expansive DNA sampling. “It saves women’s lives.”

Mr. Morrissey pointed to Britain, which has fewer privacy protections than the United States and has been taking DNA upon arrest for years. It has a population of 61 million — and 4.5 million DNA profiles. “About 8 percent of the people commit about 70 percent of your crimes, so if you can get the majority of that community, you don’t have to do more than that,” he said.

In the United States, 8 percent of the population would be roughly 24 million people.

Britain may provide a window into America’s genetic surveillance future: As of March 2008, 857,000 people in the British database, or about one-fifth, have no current criminal record. In December, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Britain violated international law by collecting DNA profiles from innocent people, including children as young as 10.

Critics are also disturbed by the demographics of DNA databases. Again Britain is instructive. According to a House of Commons report, 27 percent of black people and 42 percent of black males are genetically registered, compared with 6 percent of white people.

As in Britain, expanding genetic sampling in the United States could exacerbate racial disparities in the criminal justice system, according to Hank Greely, a Stanford University Law School professor who studies the intersection of genetics, policing and race. Mr. Greely estimated that African-Americans, who are about 12 percent of the national population, make up 40 percent of the DNA profiles in the federal database, reflective of their prison population. He also expects Latinos, who are about 13 percent of the population and committed 40 percent of last year’s federal offenses — nearly half of them immigration crimes — to dominate DNA databases.

Enforcement officials contend that DNA is blind to race. Federal profiles include little more information than the DNA sequence and the referring police agency. Subjects’ names are usually kept by investigators.

Rock Harmon, a former prosecutor for Alameda County, Calif., and an adviser to crime laboratories, said DNA demographics reflected the criminal population. Even if an innocent man’s DNA was included in a genetic database, he said, it would come to nothing without a crime scene sample to match it. “If you haven’t done anything wrong, you have nothing to fear,” he said.

Next Article in US (2 of 17) » A version of this article appeared in print on April 19, 2009, on page A1 of the New York edition.


Gepubliceerd in Profiling

British government backs down over telephone database plan

The Washington Post, AP, Jill Lawless, Monday, April 27, 2009; 8:28 AM

LONDON -- The British government said Monday it wants communications companies to keep records of every phone call, e-mail and Web site visit made in the country. But it has decided not to set up a national database of the information, a proposal that had been condemned as a "Big Brother"-style invasion of privacy by civil liberties groups.  

The government said in October it was considering a central database of phone and Internet traffic as part of a high-tech strategy to fight terrorism and crime.

 But Home Secretary Jacqui Smith said Monday the plan had been dropped.

 A document outlining the department's proposals said the government "recognizes the privacy implications" of a database and "does not propose to pursue this approach."


Instead, the government said it was backing a "middle way" that would see service providers store and organize information on every individual's phone and Internet traffic so that it could be accessed by police and other authorities on request.

 The Home Office estimated introducing the new system would cost up to 2 billion pounds ($3 billion).  

Under current rules, British Internet service providers are already required to store records of Web and e-mail traffic for a year. The new proposals would also require them to retain details of communications that originated in other countries but passed across British networks _ for example if someone in Britain accessed a U.S.-based e-mail account.

 The government said providers would not store the content of calls, e-mails or Internet use. They would retain details of times, dates, phone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web site URLs.

 Smith said officials had to strike "a delicate balance between privacy and security," but insisted police and intelligence agencies needed more tools to fight crime and terrorism in an ever-more complex online world.

 "Advances in communications mean that there are ever more sophisticated ways to communicate and we need to ensure that we keep up with the technology being used by those who would seek to do us harm," Smith said.

 The proposals are still a long way from becoming law. The government is seeking public comment until July, and widespread opposition is expected.

 The government said there would be strict safeguards on who could access the information, but critics say existing surveillance powers have been abused by local authorities investigating relatively trivial offenses such as littering or failing to clean up dog mess.

 That led the government in December to say it would clamp down on abuses of surveillance laws.

 Trust in the government also has been hit by a series of lost data incidents. In November, a government department lost a disk that contained the names, addresses and bank details of 25 million people.

Gepubliceerd in Profiling
zondag, 10 oktober 2010 07:15

Macht, leugen en lafheid


  Privacy First, Amsterdam, 21 november 2009

"De essentie van het brede onbehagen is ..."

Column "Macht, leugen en lafheid" van prof. Bob Smalhout.
Verscheen in De Telegraaf van 21 nov. 2009, pag. T9.

Macht, leugen en lafheid
door prof. dr. Bob Smalhout


Na jaren van politieke ellende begint het kennelijk bij veel landgenoten door te dringen dat de bijna ontelbare maatregelen, uitspraken, plannen en beloften van onze overheid de onbetrouwbaarheid bezitten van het Nederlandse weer. Vandaar de panische angst van de meeste politici voor verkiezingen, voor een volksreferendum in combinatie met een stage groei van het aantal potentiële stemmers op de PVV, de partij van Geert Wilders. De essentie van het brede onbehagen (door het politieke establishment altijd minachtend 'onderbuikgevoelens' genoemd) is de groeiende vrees steeds meer door de overheid in ons privéleven te worden aangetast. Hadden wij kortgeleden te maken met het ministerie van Financiën dat grote bedragen uitkeerde aan criminelen die gestolen financiële privé-gegevens in de aanbieding hadden, thans worden wij overvallen door de minister Eurlings (CDA) van Verkeer en Waterstaat, met een uitgebreid plan om autokilometers te gaan registreren en te belasten via in de auto geplaatste monitoren. Niet alleen dat er van deze kastjes ruim negen miljoen nodig zijn, maar bovendien moeten ze worden ingebouwd. En dat alles kost miljoenen.

De automobilist wordt verantwoordelijk voor het goed functioneren van zijn elektronische bewaker. Defecten moeten onmiddellijk worden gemeld aan de overheid, die dreigt met hoge boetes en zelfs gevangenisstraffen. Hoe die gemiddelde burger te weten moet komen of het apparaat goed werkt, wordt niet vermeld. Ook niet wat er gebeurt bij diefstal. Maar het meest benauwende is wel dat de overheid via dit systeem van iedereen kan weten waar en wanneer hij of zij zich bevindt. Om deze pil wat te vergulden wordt erbij verteld dat de files door het systeem zouden verminderen, dat de reistijd dus korter wordt en dat er minder ongelukken zullen gebeuren, met cijfers achter de komma alsof het zuivere wiskunde is. Maar die bedrieglijke psychologische techniek kennen we zo langzamerhand wel. Minister Klink (CDA) van Volksgezondheid doet hetzelfde, maar dan met zijn eigen stokpaardje, het 'elektronisch patiënten dossier.'

Het rekeningrijden heeft al een lange voorgeschiedenis en vele ministers hebben er al hun tanden op stukgebeten. Zoals Kroes, die in 1989, als minister van Verkeer en Waterstaat, 'tolheffing' voorstelde. Haar opvolgster Maij-Weggen (CDA) had in 1991 voorstellen voor zowel een spitsvignet als voor een carpoolstrook. Jorritsma (VVD) kwam met het wetsvoorstel 'rekeningrijden' en Netelenbos (PvdA) bedacht de elektronische tolpoorten. Alle projecten liepen vast op het enige wat de geplaagde bevolking kan doen, namelijk het torpederen van wat in de politiek 'een sociaal draagvlak' wordt genoemd.


Doch, al die nooit uitgevoerde grootscheepse plannen hebben wél vele miljoenen belastinggeld gekost. Alleen ex-minister Netelenbos heeft er de onsterfelijke bijnaam van 'Tineke Tolpoort' aan overgehouden. Ook is een onaangename maatregel van de socialist Wim Kok, als bewijs van onbetrouwbaarheid van politici, voor altijd in het collectieve geheugen van onze burgerij blijven hangen. Hij voerde in 1991 het beruchte 'kwartje van Kok' in. Het zou een tijdelijke maatregel zijn: ƒ 0,25 extra per liter benzine, om een gat in zijn begroting te dichten. Nu, na achttien jaar, betalen we nog steeds dat kwartje van Kok. Maar het meest vrezen de Nederlanders de continue aantasting van hun privéleven. Dat wordt zeer sterk gevoeld door mensen die bewust de Tweede Wereldoorlog hebben meegemaakt.
Alle maatregelen van de Duitse bezetter berustten destijds op een perfecte registratie en documentatie. Hierdoor was voor de nazi's het oppakken, transporteren en vermoorden van onze Joodse medeburgers, een fluitje van een cent. De overheid was in de jaren dertig zó verzot geweest op perfecte bevolkingsregistratie, dat wij als eersten in Europa daarvoor gebruikmaakten van elektromechanische computers, het Hollerith-systeem. Een ponskaartenmachine, uitgevonden door Hermann Hollerith in 1884 en geproduceerd door de Amerikaanse firma IBM.

Zonder de Hollerith-apparaten van IBM was de uitroeiing van miljoenen Joden veel moeilijker geweest. De Nederlander die in ons land verantwoordelijk was voor die perfecte registratie en organisatie was Jacobus Lambertus Lentz, hoofd Rijksinspectie der Bevolkingsregistraties en uitvinder van het destijds beruchte persoonsbewijs (identiteitskaart), dat vrijwel niet te vervalsen was. Zijn lijfspreuk luidde: "Registreren is Dienen." Zijn ideeën over blinde dienstbaarheid hebben meer dan 102.000 Joodse Nederlanders het leven gekost.


Dat het diepe wantrouwen van de oorlogsgeneratie tegen massale bevolkingsregistraties voor welk doel dan ook, nog steeds diep verankerd is, werd op 5 november jongstleden vermeld in het dagblad Trouw in een artikel over hackers die moeiteloos computercodes konden kraken. Een als 'Henk' aangeduide professionele hacker, die als software-ontwikkelaar de veiligheid van websites onderzoekt, vindt wekelijks tussen de veertig en honderd elektronische lekken bij de overheid, bedrijven en andere organisaties.

De grondgedachte bij al die grootschalige registratiesystemen is de diepgewortelde wens van de meeste politici om macht uit te kunnen oefenen. Daar wordt vaak alles aan opgeofferd. Maar zodra een groot deel van de bevolking de voet dwars zet en NEE roept, veranderen vele politici in laffe kleinzielige mensen die in staat zijn hun mening binnen 24 uur compleet te herzien. Een klassiek voorbeeld was deze week de minister van Wonen, Wijken en Integratie, Eberhard van der Laan (PvdA), die nog onlangs arrogant weigerde om aan Wilders (PVV) gegevens te verschaffen over de kosten van de massale niet-westerse immigratie. Drie dagen geleden, met de hete adem van diezelfde Wilders in zijn nek, sprak Eberhard deze briljante volzin: "Wij (PvdA), waren vrij onnozel om niet in te zien dat je voor het slagen van integratie wél eisen moet stellen. We lieten de Nederlanders in de kou staan." Er bestaan dus nog steeds wonderbaarlijke genezingen die medisch niet te verklaren zijn. Nu Eurlings nog. Zou voor hem Lourdes een optie zijn?

Gepubliceerd in Columns

UK government loses personal information of 25 million people

WikiNews, Tuesday, November 20, 2007

British Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced to a shocked House of Commons today that two password-protected — but not encrypted — computer disks containing the entire Child Benefit database have been lost in transit between the offices of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) in Washington, Tyne & Wear and the National Audit Office (NAO) in London, in what has been described as "one of the world’s biggest ID protection failures".

The database contains details of all families in the UK who receive Child Benefit — all families with children up to 16 years of age, plus those with children up to 20 years old if they are in full-time education or training — estimated to contain 25 million individuals in 7.25 million families. Among other items of information, the database contains names, addresses, dates of birth, child benefit and National Insurance numbers, and where appropriate, bank or building society account details.

The discs were created by a junior official at the HMRC in response to a request for information by the NAO, and were sent unregistered and unrecorded on 18 October using the courier company TNT — which operates the HMRC's internal mail system. When it was found that the discs had not arrived for audit at the NAO, a further copy of this data was made and sent — this time by registered mail — and this package did arrive. HMRC were not informed that the original discs had been lost until 8 November, and Darling himself was informed on 10 November.

The violation of data protection laws involved in the creation of the discs has led to strong attacks on the government's competence to establish the proposed National Identity Register, when all UK residents will have an identity card. Conservative Shadow Chancellor George Osborne described the loss of data as "catastrophic" and said "They [the government] simply cannot be trusted with people's personal information".

The Chairman of HMRC, Paul Gray, has resigned over the affair, and critics are calling for Darling to do likewise.

This is the third data embarrassment for HMRC in recent weeks — earlier this month it was reported that the details of over 15,000 Standard Life customers had been put on disk, and then lost en route from HMRC in Newcastle to Standard Life in Edinburgh — and last month a laptop containing the data of 400 people with high-value ISAs was stolen from the boot of a car belonging to a HMRC official who had been carrying out a routine audit.


Gepubliceerd in Identiteitsdiefstal
vrijdag, 02 oktober 2009 12:05

Misbruik van gegevens wordt straks een eitje

Onder het motto "Zeg uw privacy maar gedag" heeft dagblad De Pers een inzichtelijk artikel gemaakt over hoe het staat met onze privacy en overheidsdatabases. Klik HIER om het uitstekend leesbare artikel door te nemen.

Gepubliceerd in Financiële privacy & PSD2
zondag, 23 augustus 2009 19:47

Suspect Nation

Beroemde Britse documentaire "Suspect Nation" (Verdachte Natie) over de vorderingen van de opbouw van de elektronische controlestaat Groot-Brittannië. Voor het eerst uitgezonden in november 2006 door de BBC, maar nog even actueel. (45 min.)

Gepubliceerd in Videocorner
Pagina 14 van 14

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